SDGs focus areas: Stakeholder proposals for goals and targets


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By Jack Cornforth, Juliette Becuwe and Umberto Sconfienza, Stakeholder Forum

Introduction

The UN General Assembly’s Open Working Group (OWG) on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) was mandated by Member States at Rio+20 to propose a set of SDGs by September 2014. Ahead of the OWG’s ninth session in early March, the Co-Chairs produced a guiding document with 19 focus areas summarising the issues for consideration in its ongoing consensus building work. In the tenth session (31 March – 4 April 2014) it is anticipated that Member States will start to engage in more structured discussion around goals and targets based on the 19 identified focus areas.

In order to inform the discussions at this meeting, Stakeholder Forum has, for each of the 19 focus areas, compiled a number of goals and corresponding targets from stakeholder proposals housed within the SDGs e-Inventory - an interactive online tool which enables stakeholders to outline their visions for new post-2015 global goals and search existing proposals.

The SDGs e-Inventory contains a diverse range of proposals from a wide variety of stakeholders across all global regions.  This report aims to provide a snapshot of stakeholder proposals on the 19 focus areas and provide a selection of example goals and targets that can feed into initial discussions on these concrete elements.  It is hoped that this synthesis will be a useful resource for OWG members and other stakeholders involved in the process of designing goals and targets for the Post-2015 Development Agenda.

Methodology

Using SDGs e-Inventory search function, relevant proposals were identified for each of the OWG’s 19 focus areas. As a large number of proposals were retrieved for each focus area, the next step was to refine the selection of goals and targets to provide a concise and representative snapshot. This process of refinement was done with a view to feature a range of sub-themes, as well provide a sample representative of the diverse geographical locations and stakeholder groups that the proposals come from.
Given that the goals and targets put forward in the reports of the UN Secretary-General’s High Level Panel of Eminent Persons on Post-2015, Sustainable Development Solutions Network, and UN Global Compact (sometimes referred to as official process inputs) are already well known to the OWG, they have not been included in this synthesis.

The selected goals and corresponding targets are presented in a table for each focus area. These have been grouped (as far as possible) according sub-themes [1],  with a view to facilitate comparison of different goals and targets proposed on similar issues.

For the purposes of this exercise, goals and affiliated targets have been kept together to maintain continuity with how they have been presented in their corresponding proposal, rather than splitting the targets up across multiple focus areas. To maximise the number of proposals included in the document, each goal and target only appears once and has been placed under what we consider to be the focus area which best aligns with the targets.

Interlinkages

The Rio+20 Outcome Document and the OWG discussions so far have emphasised the importance of the SDGs being integrated. This involves acknowledging and capitalising on the interlinkages between different sectors and the three dimensions of sustainable development. This integration will be key to the success of the SDGs, but also presents a significant challenge in the design of the framework. To facilitate thinking on integration early on, the OWG has produced an annex to its focus areas document highlighting the possible interlinkages between the different areas.

To contribute to the consideration of interlinkages and integration, throughout this document an effort has been made to highlight the interlinkages between each individual target and other focus areas. It is hoped that this information can be used to help mainstream specific issues across other relevant focus areas. To do this we have assigned each focus area an icon. These can be seen in the table below.

 

Click on the icons below to read a summary of the targets and indicators related to each of the 19 focus areas:

 

poverty 1. Poverty eradication
Employment icon 11. Employment and decent work for all
food 2. Sustainable agriculture, food security and nutrition   equality 12. Promote equality

Health icon

3. Health and Population Dynamics   City 13. Sustainable cities and human settlements
Education 4. Education   sustainable consumption 14. Promote sustainable consumption and Production
gender equality 5. Gender equality and women’s empowerment   Climate 15. Climate
water icon 6. Water and sanitation   ocean2 16. Conservation and sustainable use of marine resources, oceans and seas
Energy icon 7. Energy   biodiversity icon 17. Ecosystems and biodiversity
Growth icon 8. Economic growth   Implementation icon 18. Means of implementation/Global partnership for sustainable development
Industrialisation 9. Industrialisation   peace icon 19. Peaceful and non-violent societies, rule of law and capable institutions
Infrastructure 10. Infrastructure  

 


Focus area 1. Poverty eradication

Given that poverty eradication is the primary aim of the new goals framework, there are unsurprisingly a wide range of proposals within the e-Inventory that address the issue. The majority of which, however, seemingly do so at the target level under a different thematic area as opposed to a standalone goal in its own right (i.e. treating poverty as a cross-cutting issue). Those that do propose an individual goal on poverty usually group it with other closely related issues, such as inequality and prosperity, and capacity building and social protection. This would suggest that a more multi-dimensional approach to poverty eradication is being promoted compared to that of the MDG framework.

Inequality and Prosperity

Goal

Poverty and Inequality [2]

Interlinkages

End extreme poverty and promote shared prosperity [3]

Interlinkages

Targets

Implement progressive and redistributive taxation, public spending and social policies (in education, health, wages and social protection) to minimize economic and social inequality.

Implementation iconEducationpeace iconHealth iconEmployment iconequality

End extreme poverty: the percentage of people living with less than $1.25 a day to fall to no more than 3 percent globally by 2030.

Provide Support to small-scale farmers, women producers, rural workers secure access to water, land, soils, biodiversity, credit and infrastructure to end hunger and poverty.

food gender equalitywater iconInfrastructureequalitybiodiversity icon

Promote shared prosperity: foster income growth of the bottom 40 percent of the population in every country.

 

 

Growth icon Employment icon equality

 

 

 

Ensure access to energy services for the poor and marginalized.

Energy iconequality

 

Capacity Building and Social Protection

Goal

Strengthen the individual and collective capacities of people living in greatest poverty and marginalisation [4]

Interlinkages

Universal social protection [5]

Interlinkages

Targets

Capacities of individuals to access resources and to contribute in their own development.

Implementation icon

Implementation of a universal social protection floor based on ILO Recommendation No.202.

equality

Capacities of individuals and collectives to represent issues that matter to the poorest, and support collective responses to problems.

equalityImplementation icon

Extension of social security provisions to men and women working in the informal economy.

gender equalityEmployment iconequality

Capacities of government institutions to respond to the needs and interests of people living in greatest poverty and marginalisation.

equalityImplementation icon

Ratification and implementation of ILO Convention No. 102 on social security.

equalitygender equality

Spending on social protection as a percentage of GDP.

equalityImplementation iconpeace icon

Revenue raised through progressive tax collection as percentage of GDP.

equality Implementation icon  peace icon

Creation of a global fund to help the poorest countries implement a social protection floor.

equality Implementation icon

 

Focus area 2. Sustainable agriculture, food security and nutrition

A large number of proposals in the e-Inventory put forward specific goals on food and agriculture. These can be split into three broad categories: food sovereignty and empowerment; sustainable agriculture; and hunger and nutrition. Nevertheless, the degree of overlap between these categories and the large number of apparent interlinkages at the target level reveals the cross-cutting nature of the issue and its centrality to overall framework.    

Food Sovereignty and Empowerment

Goal

Food sovereignty[6]

Interlinkages

Support and empower farmers to create a sustainable agriculture[7]

Interlinkages

Targets

Adopt food sovereignty as policy framework towards adequate, safe, nutritious food for all.

Health iconpeace icon

Farmers in the developing world can become as productive as those in the developed world - while supporting continuous gains in sustainability for all.

sustainable consumptionequality

Policies and investments to support small-scale farmers, women producers, and workers.

gender equalityEmployment iconequality Implementation icon peace icon

Re-commit to empower farmers via support to knowledge sharing and accessible, quality extension in farm management and marketing.

EducationImplementation icon Growth icon

Secure access to (and protection of) the water, land, soils, biodiversity.

water iconequality biodiversity icon

Supportive frameworks for investment in infrastructure and inclusive markets.

Growth iconInfrastructure  Implementation icon peace icon

Work with farmers and other actors across the value chain to address not just food waste, but also food loss.

sustainable consumption

Sustainable Agriculture

Goal

Sustainable agriculture[8]

Interlinkages

Adoption of sustainable agricultural practices[9]

Interlinkages

Targets

By 2030, chemical inputs, herbicides and pesticides are largely replaced with organic and biological alternatives. Cultivated crop strains are diversified, as are production techniques and the mix of agricultural producers.

sustainable consumption

Sustainable intensification:

• Prevent zero net land degradation in wild areas and increase production on existing arable land;

• Restore land and soil quality and manage land and soil resources sustainably; Ensure that food production can meet growing demand and that, in line with the vision of the Strategic Plan of the Convention on Biological Diversity, biodiversity is valued, conserved, restored and wisely used and that ecosystem services are maintained;

• Reduce biodiversity loss due to agricultural activities.

biodiversity iconsustainable consumption

Interspersed natural areas should be protected and restored as sources of pollination, pest control and soil fertility. Best management practices reduce erosion by 90 per cent and nitrogen runoff by 50 per cent or more.

biodiversity iconsustainable consumption

 

Restoring soils and degraded land:

• Restore land and soil quality and manage land and soil resources sustainably.

biodiversity icon peace icon

Food for export is secondary to food for local consumption.

 

Expanding resource efficiency techniques:

• Invest in nutrient use efficiency research;

• Promote connections between water, energy and land.

sustainable consumption Infrastructurewater icon  Energy iconImplementation icon

The local ecological knowledge of indigenous peoples and traditional and local communities is utilized to identify resilient crops and cultivation practices that provide maximum protection against climate change.

equality sustainable consumption Climate

Reducing the yield gap for smallholders:

• Invest in extension and knowledge sharing that assists in scaling farmers’ adoption of good farming practices, and in planning for resilience to climate change and potential yield losses;

• Develop a network of agri-input dealers as farmers’ main point of contact for inputs and advice, in order to promote extension services and knowledge transfer;

• Governments need to invest in agricultural education programs to train agronomists, extension workers and agro-input dealers.

Implementation icon Climatepeace iconEducationEmployment icon

Hunger and Nutrition

Goal

Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger beyond 2015[10]

Interlinkages

To ensure adequate and healthy food for all[11]

Interlinkages

Targets

 

 

 

 

 

Improve food security and nutrition by focusing on increasing production and productivity.

sustainable consumption

To halt the rise in overweight and obesity for children and adults.

Health icon

Support farming communities, the poor and the vulnerable to go into small holder farming.

equality Employment icon

To reduce the global number of children under five who are stunted by 2025.

Health icon

Encourage commercialization of agriculture through ensuring the availability of modern farm equipment and tax free farm inputs.

Growth iconImplementation icon

To increase exclusive breastfeeding rates in the first six months by 2025.

Health icon

Ensure that extension services are provided free of charge.

peace icon

Ensure that farmers have easy access to information, especially on the marketability of their products.

peace icon

Focus on improving infrastructure, such as roads and electricity.

Infrastructure Energy icon

 

Focus area 3. Health and population dynamics

This focus area covers a number of topics addressed by the individual MDGs, and a large number of e-Inventory proposals have put forward clear recommendations on these issues, in the form of both broad and specific standalone goals. There are, for instance, a number of individual broad health goals which contain relatively diverse targets, along with more focused goals on maternal and infant health, and other specific population dynamics-related issues. The repeated interlinakge of targets to gender equality seems to be particularly noteworthy.

Broad Health Goals

Goal

Ensure healthy lives to full equality of all people[12]

Interlinkages

Ensure universal access to quality health care delivery[13]

Interlinkages

Targets

End preventable infant and under-5 deaths.

 

Reduce by three quarters, between 2015 and 2030, the under-five mortality rate, and to the barest minimum by 2040.

 

Increase the proportion of children, adolescents, at-risk adults and older people that are fully vaccinated.

equality

Reduce by three quarters, between 2015 and 2030, the maternal mortality ratio and to the barest minimum by 2040.

gender equality

Ensure universal sexual and reproductive health and rights.

gender equality

Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health and overall health care.

gender equalityequality

Reduce the burden of disease from HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, neglected tropical diseases and priority non-communicable diseases.

 

Reduce annual new infections of HIV/AIDS by three quarters in 2030 and ensure universal treatment for HIV/AIDS patients by 2040.

equality

 

 

By 2020, reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases and ensure that deaths caused by these diseases are reduced by a half in 2030.

 

 

 

By 2040, to have achieved a universal access to health care delivery, especially in the rural areas.

equality City

 

 

By 2040, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 200 million slum dwellers and improved social protection.

equality

Maternal and Infant Health

Goal

By 2030 we will end preventable child and maternal mortality and provide healthcare for all [14]

Interlinkages

Adequate access to primary health services, safe and sustainable water and sanitation, adequate nutrition and basic infrastructure, including electricity, roads and connectivity to the global information network[15]

Interlinkages

Targets

End preventable child and maternal mortality.

gender equality

 

Improved primary health care.

 

Achieve universal health coverage.

equality

 

Improved maternal health.

gender equality

 

Tackle the social determinants of health.

 

povertyequality

 

Combat HIV and AIDS, malaria and other diseases.

 

Improved nutrition status.

food

Population Dynamics

Goal

Ensure an enabling and supportive environment for older persons[16]

Interlinkages

Adolescent girls have access to safe, age-appropriate health and nutrition information and services and possess the confidence they need to make healthy transitions to adulthood[17]

Interlinkages

Targets:

Ensure that older persons are integrated into the development process and are poised to be an asset rather than a burden to society.

equality

Reduce the number of girls who become pregnant before age 18 by 50% by 2030. Nearly 13 million adolescent girls give birth each year in developing countries.

gender equality

Promote enabling and supportive environments for older persons. It is imperative that ageing issues are included in national development frameworks and poverty-reduction strategies in order to ensure a society for all ages.

poverty equality peace icon

 

Provide, monitor and evaluate universal access to youth-friendly health information and services, including comprehensive life skills-based sexuality education and sexual and reproductive health, for all girls in and out of school, regardless of marital or pregnancy status.

gender equalityEducationpeace icon

Support healthy ageing and economic well-being in old age.

equality Employment icon

End harmful traditional practices, including female genital mutilation, for all girls.

gender equalitypeace icon

 

Focus area 4. Education

A number of e-Inventory proposals contain goals and targets on education. The majority of which put forward broad goals that discuss education at different levels (primary, secondary, tertiary etc.), however a number of other proposals include goals and targets which look to advance education in relation to a specific issue such as gender equality and science and technology.

Broad Education Goals

Goal:

By 2030 we will ensure all children receive a good-quality education and have good learning outcomes[18]

Interlinkages

Education for sustainable development[19]

Interlinkages

Targets:

Ensure that girls and boys everywhere are achieving good learning outcomes by the age of 12 with gaps between the poorest and richest significantly reduced.

gender equalityequality

100% enrolment in free, compulsory primary education.

equality

Ensure that the poorest young children will be starting school ready to learn, with good levels of child development.

poverty equality

30% of the national budget devoted to education countries.

peace icon

Ensure that young people everywhere have basic literacy and numeracy, technical and life skills to become active citizens with decent employment.

 

 

 

Employment iconequality


 

 

 

75% adult literacy rates.

 

Ensure sex parity in education enrolment.

gender equality

Integrate values, culture and local languages ​​into education and training programmes to build understanding and expertise in youth.

 

Issue Specific Education Goals

Goal:

Achieve gender equality, and universal equitable primary and secondary education[20]

Interlinkages

Equitable access to quality education and enhance appropriate technology[21]

Interlinkages

Targets:

Ensure by 2040 that children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.

 gender equalityequality

Education system that should be accessible and affordable to all and especially the vulnerable youth by having universal primary and secondary education and provision of scholarship for students in colleges and universities at local and international level.

 equality

Ensure by 2040 that 80 per cent of boys and girls alike will be able to complete a full course of secondary education.

 gender equality

Emphasize on investment and promotion of education curriculum that is ICT-incorporated, action-oriented, technical, vocational and entrepreneurship based with the aim of preparing youth for self-employment and cope with the actual environment/working conditions Streamlining and secure of intellectual and property rights with the aim of supporting local innovations.

 InfrastructureEmployment icon

Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2030, and at all levels of education no later than 2040.

gender equality  

Streamlining and secure of intellectual and property rights with the aim of supporting local innovations.

 peace icon

Ensure that practical Science Technology and Innovation training, especially Information and Communication Technology (ICT) training is an integral part of secondary and tertiary education by 2030 and at all levels by 2040.

Infrastructure  

Support of efficient, customized and sustainable local innovation and research to solve societal problems. The development, promotion, and implementation of policies that enable internal mobilization of resources towards friendly business environment for local technological organizations/institutions.

Infrastructure Growth icon    peace icon

 

Focus area 5. Gender equality and women's empowerment

The large number of proposals which contain specific goals and targets on these issues suggest that their inclusion in the new framework is of primary importance to stakeholders. Many proposals address specific sub-issues under gender equality and empowerment, such as violence against women, participation of women and girls in society, and access to services such as education, etc. The goals listed below have been selected due to their wide ranging targets which address the majority of sub-issues gender-related proposals focus upon.

Goal:

Gender equality - The effective implentation of rights equality between men and women[22]

Interlinkages

Targets:

 Full implementation of the fundamental rights of women and girls, including access to justice.

peace icon

 

 

 A ban on forced and underage marriages (under 18).

 

 

 Prevention and elimination of all forms of violence against women and girls.

peace icon

Guaranteed exercise by women of their sexual and reproductive rights, including the right to abortion, notably to prevent and avoid premature and unwanted pregnancies.

Health icon

 Exercise of their political, economic and social rights.

peace icon

The agenda sho\uld also call for reform of discriminatory family law.

peace icon
Equal opportunities for men and women: guarantee the economic independence of women. equality
Their equal access to economic resources (including land, credit and training).

equality Implementation icon

 

Pay and professional equality. equalityEmployment icon
Equal sharing of household responsibilities. equality
Women's participation in formal employment. equalityEmployment icon
Equal participation in political, economic and social representative and decision-making bodies at all levels, which is indispensable for example to effectively achieve the above targets.

peace icon

equality

 

 

 

Goal

Ensure gender equality and empower women[23]

Interlinkages

Targets

By 2020, Governments recognize and support the implementation of women’s property and inheritance, by all means possible, and the important role and special needs of women as the primary producers and purchasers of food.

foodequality peace icon

By 2022, Governments adopt and implement laws that oblige their agencies to take appropriate measures to provide information and engage affected people living in poverty, women and other disadvantaged groups, when making sustainable development decisions.

equalitypeace icon

By 2020, ensure that women have full access to health care, education, decent living conditions and decent jobs.

equalityHealth iconInfrastructure

Ensure access to information technology, especially for youth and women.

Employment iconequality

Create eco-friendly jobs, with a special focus on youth, women and disadvantaged populations.

peace iconequalityImplementation icon

By 2025, Governments ensure the protection of women's rights and develop national strategies to stop men's violence against women.

Implementation icon

By 2025, Governments implement the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), without any reservations.

Implementation icon

 


Focus area 6. Water and sanitation

Many e-Inventory proposals that address this focus area have proposed goals which deal with both water and sanitation together. Other proposals put forward goals which only address the sustainable use and management of water resources and water security. Given the number of interrelated issues a water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) goal would cover, its inclusion could be one way of ensuring that the framework remains concise, with a limited number of goals. However efforts will need to be made to ensure that this does not occur at the expense of the targets related to integrated water resource management (IWRM), thereby accounting for the impact of water policies and use on other issues such as food and energy.


Goal:

A water-secure world[24]

Interlinkages

Sustainable use of water[25]

Interlinkages

Targets:

Everyone has safe drinking water, adequate sanitation and practices good hygiene at home.

Health icon equality

By 2013, universal and long-term access to clean water and sanitation facilities. We call for the international recognition of water as a public good and the prohibition of its commercialization. The primary use of water should be considered as drinking water and for subsistence economies and be distributed fairly and efficiently amongst all sectors and social groups.


 

Implementation icon equality   

All schools, health centres and other institutions provide all users with basic drinking water supply, adequate sanitation, and hand washing and menstrual hygiene facilities.

Health iconInfrastructure equality

Water, sanitation and hygiene are an equitable and sustainable sub-goal.

Health icon equality

By 2020, an increase in water use efficiency by 20% in the industrial, energy, and agricultural sector; comprehensive utilization of waste and rain water as an important resource in all sectors; as well as an increase of water recycling by 50%.


 

IndustrialisationfoodEnergy iconInfrastructure sustainable consumption


 

 

  

Water resources are managed in every country and every basin based on an IWRM plan.

peace icon  

All trans-boundary basins have institutional and legal frameworks.

Implementation icon

 

As of 2015, a general prohibition on water deterioration due to a water cycle’s pollution through waste, pesticides, industry, fertilizers and mining activities as already exists in Europe since 2000 under the European Water Framework Directive; a long-term ban on the entry of dangerous substances into water cycles; strict monitoring and adherence to national and international water protection and conservation laws, as well as efficient sanctions in case of violations.

Industrialisationpeace icon Implementation icon Infrastructure

sustainable consumption

All ecosystems are managed sustainably and their services ensured. biodiversity icon 
Water efficiency and productive use of water resources in industry, agriculture and communal water supply is progressively increased. Infrastructure foodIndustrialisation
All industrial wastewater is collected and adequately treated for reuse/discharge.

sustainable consumptionInfrastructure Industrialisation

 
By 2020, the development of regulations and implementation programs for maintaining or achieving good water quality (“environmental flow”), defined respective to existing natural landscapes. peace iconbiodiversity icon 
All urban wastewater is adequately treated before being reused or discharged to the (aquatic) environment. biodiversity iconCityInfrastructure
All wastewater is managed in a sustainable way to protect water resources and aquatic ecosystems.  biodiversity iconInfrastructure

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)

Goal:

Proposal for a sustainable development goal on water and sanitation[26]

Interlinkages

Shared vision for water, sanitation and hygiene[27]

Interlinkages

Targets:

Adoption of national legal, policy, and institutional framework for the promotion of universal access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation facilities by all countries, by 2030.

 

equality  peace icon

 

By 2025 no one practices open defecation, and inequalities in the practice of open defecation have been progressively eliminated.

 Health iconequality

All drinking water, sanitation and hygiene services are delivered in a progressively affordable, accountable, financially and environmentally sustainable manner.

sustainable consumptionHealth iconInfrastructure equality

 

Ensure universal access to, and use of safe and affordable drinking water, and improved sanitation and hygiene facilities, by 2030.
Increase sustainable use of all water resources, including waste water, to X% of harvest potential by 2030.

Health iconequality

By 2030 everyone uses basic drinking-water supply and hand washing facilities when at home, all schools and health centres provide all users with basic drinking-water supply and adequate sanitation facilities, hand washing facilities and menstrual hygiene facilities, and inequalities in access to each of these services have been progressively eliminated.

equality Health icon Infrastructure

Increase sustainable use of all water resources, including waste water, to X% of harvest potential by 2030.

 sustainable consumption

By 2040, everyone uses adequate sanitation at home, the proportion of the population not using an intermediate drinking water service at home has been reduced by half, the excreta from at least half of schools, health centres and households with adequate sanitation are safely managed, and inequalities in access to all these services have been progressively reduced.

Infrastructure  equality

 
 
Focus area 7. Energy

Several proposals reiterate or build upon the targets used by the UN Secretary-General’s Sustainable Energy For All (SE4ALL) initiative, thereby addressing issues of energy access, efficiency and renewables under a single goal. Others, however, contain specific goals on sub-issues such as energy access and sustainable energy use, something which has in some cases corresponded with more detailed targets than those proposed as part of broader goals on this focus area.  

SE4ALL

Goal

By 2030 we will deliver sustainable energy to all [28]

Interlinkages

Sustainable energy use [29]

Interlinkages

Clean energy[30]

Interlinkages

Targets

Universal access to modern energy services.

equality Infrastructure

We call for By 2030, universal access to energy, a 14% reduction of energy consumption in buildings and industry, a doubling of worldwide energy efficiency and the portion of renewable energies in the global mix, and support for the UN Secretary Generals Sustainable Energy for All Initiative.

sustainable consumptionIndustrialisationequality

By 2030, at least 50 per cent of the worlds energy supply comes from renewable sources.

sustainable consumption

Eradicate preventable deaths from cook stoves and open fires.

Health icon

Double the share of renewable energy sources in the global energy mix.

sustainable consumption

As a prerequisite, renewable energy projects with negative effects on the ecological and social conditions regionally or globally should not be supported. This includes large hydropower plants, dams, and large-scale biofuels.

biodiversity icon food Implementation icon water icon

By 2020, energy demand is reduced through efficiency and conservation by at least 20 per cent.

sustainable consumption

Double the rate of improvements in energy efficiency.

sustainable consumption

By 2020, 100 million households are supplied with clean cooking energy, for example through support of the Alliance for Clean Cookstoves.

food Infrastructure

By 2030, energy poverty is eliminated by providing universal access to modern energy services from renewable sources.

sustainable consumptionequality poverty

Focus area 8. Economic growth

No proposals in the e-Inventory call for a goal on economic growth on its own, rather advocating instead for ‘sustainable’ and ‘green’ economic growth, as well as the need to build the resilience of economies. The emphasis on a particular kind of growth rather than just economic growth being an end in itself is also reflected in the targets included under goals on this issue. This suggests that stakeholders share the views of the OWG that growth is essential for poverty eradication, however only if it is inclusive and environmentally sound – something which should be taken into consideration when choosing the precise language used should this focus area be translated into a goal in the final framework.

Green and Inclusive Growth

Goal

Promote green growth and creation of decent jobs [31]

Interlinkages

Inclusive economic development [32]

Interlinkages

Targets

Multiply the 2008-2012 private investment growth rates from 2015 to 2035 by two or more.

Implementation icon

Job opportunities are created and reduce incentives to engage in violence and conflict, and the barriers to women’s access to formal employment are actively addressed.

Employment icon gender equality peace icon

Increase percentage of decent jobs from 2015 to 2040.

Employment icon

Provide more green jobs to diversify jobs available by 2040.

Employment iconsustainable consumption

Funding is allocated to income-generating projects including some quick wins, particularly for youth and marginalized groups.

equality peace icon

By 2035, reduce by at least one half, the unemployment and underemployment rate of young university graduates.

Employment icon

Strengthen social security civil protection systems.

equality peace icon

Women are prioritized and targeted for involvement in labour intensive public and community works.

 gender equalityEmployment icon

Increased agricultural productivity and domestic private sector development benefit women farmers and entrepreneurs.

foodgender equality

Economic Resilience

Goal

Foster the resilience of economies [33]

Interlinkages

Targets

Improvement of international cooperation.

Implementation icon

Enhancement of the resilience of economic systems through development of incentives favouring small and medium size enterprises (SMEs).

peace icon

Enhancement of the resilience of farming and food supply systems through support of production and distribution schemes serving consumers and preserving local land ownership.

food

Development and implementation of technologies for water conservation, pollution reduction, and recycling that will meet the increasing demand for water for human use and maintenance of aquatic ecosystems.

Industrialisation sustainable consumption water icon

Pursuit of a new economic paradigm that favours qualitative growth over maximum production and revenue.

equality

Development of innovative technologies serving local demands and their application in rural areas.

Infrastructure

Improvement of general public understanding of the contribution of individuals to environmental degradation and ecosystem shifts and the obligation of each person to cooperate in the efforts to reverse detrimental developments.

biodiversity icon Education

Improvement of risk dynamic modelling of economic and financial systems for the purpose of managing unforeseen developments.

peace icon

Focus area 9. Industrialisation

Very few proposals housed in the e-Inventory contain goals which directly address issues of industrialisation. Nonetheless a small number of proposals do contain targets which touch upon this focus area, covering issues such as science and research, the reduction of pollutants and waste in industry, and the transition to clean industrialised economies.

Goal

Applied science and research is performed in the service of the public good [34]

Interlinkages

Thriving lives and livelihoods [35]

Interlinkages

Targets

Applied science and research agenda's are publicly defined: they are the result of democratic processes, allowing all stakeholders to contribute to the definition and to a prioritization of agenda's or projects to be (publicly) funded.

Industrialisation peace icon

Targets on clean air that build on World Health Organization guidelines for pollutants such as black carbon.

Health icon

Reductions in emissions of stratospheric ozone-depleting substances in line with projections from the Montreal Protocol.

Climate Implementation icon

Structural solutions are implemented to free R&D activities from short term economic/financial (growth) imperatives.

 Growth icon Industrialisation

Critical loads for manmade chemical compounds and toxic materials.

 

Sustainable practices for extraction, use and recycling of scarce minerals and metals and other natural resources.

sustainable consumptionInfrastructure

 

Goal

Promote the transition to a green and inclusive economy [36]

Interlinkages

Targets

Create green jobs to account for 20 per cent of national employment between 2015 and 2035.

Employment icon

Increase by 50 per cent the number of people who receive loans to engage in a productive activity between 2015 and 2035.

Implementation icon

Develop a clean industry accounting for 30 per cent of national industrial production between 2015 and 2035.

sustainable consumption

Half the number of people working in the informal sector between 2015 and 2035.

Employment icon

Reduce by 50 per cent the proportion of unskilled unemployed youth between 2015 and 2035.

Employment icon

Increase the share of renewable energy in the energy mix to 30 per cent, between 2015 and 2035.

Energy icon sustainable consumption

Reduce by at least half rate of unemployment and underemployment of young university graduates by 2035.

Employment icon

Ensure access for all to modern and efficient energy, notably in the agricultural, building, industry and transport sectors, by 2035.

sustainable consumptionEnergy icon food Infrastructureequality

Double private investment growth rate between 2015-35.

Growth icon Implementation icon

Ensure mainstreaming of environmental issues in all public policies (sub-regional, national and local) for the sustainable management of the environment by 2035.

biodiversity icon sustainable consumption peace icon

Half by 2035 the rate of degradation of natural resources and biodiversity.

biodiversity icon

 

Focus area 10. Infrastructure

Proposals in the e-Inventory which relate to this focus area can be broadly split into two categories; those which discuss infrastructure in broad terms and include targets across multiple sectors such as water, energy, and waste etc., and those which specifically focus on transport-related infrastructure issues. The frequency of sustainable consumption and production (SCP) in the interlinkages column would suggest that this issue goes hand in hand with infrastructure.

Broad infrastructure Goals

Goal

Increase and improve infrastructure and urban management [37]

Interlinkages

Quality infrastructure for access to energy, transportation and communication [38]

Interlinkages

Targets

Double access to sustainable energy between 2015 and 2040.

Energy icon

Electricity and Clean Water: Provide Reliable Electricity and Clean Water at Affordable Price to All

Energy iconwater icon equality

Increase the share of renewable energy in total energy by 15 per cent and improve energy efficiency to about 10 per cent by 2040.

Energy iconsustainable consumption

Increase by two thirds, between 2015 and 2040, waste collection, disposal and management.

sustainable consumption

Information and Communication Technology (ICT): Connect All Through Readily Available Communication Technology

equality Implementation icon

Increase by a fifth, between 2015 and 2040, sustainable transport.

 

Increase by a third the length of motor able roads and double-rail transport between 2015 and 2040.

 

Transportation: Establish Well-Maintained Transport System for Both Private and Business Purposes

Industrialisation

Halve, by 2030, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation and eliminate it by 2040.

water icon

 

 


Transportation

Goal

Global improvements in the fuel economy of light duty vehicles, with a 50% reduction by 2050 in L/100km in all cars globally (compared to 2005) [39]

Interlinkages

Sustainable Transport [40]

Interlinkages

Targets

30% reduction in L/100km by 2020 compared to 2005 in all new cars in OECD countries

sustainable consumption

Rural access target: Secure universal access by sustainable transport for rural populations by 2030.

equality

50% reduction in all new cars globally by 2030

sustainable consumption

Urban access target: Secure universal access by sustainable transport for urban populations by 2030.

equalityCity

50% reduction by 2050 in all cars globally

sustainable consumption

National access and regional connectivity target: Facilitate national inclusion and regional connectivity by sustainable multi-modal freight and passenger services by 2030.

equality

Road safety target: Halve the burden due to global road traffic crashes by halving the number of fatalities and serious injuries by 2030 compared to 2010.

Health icon

Air pollution and human health target: Increase share of urban population with air quality within WHO limits.

Health iconCity

Gas emissions target: Total world transport-related GHG emissions peak no later than 2020 then begin to decline at a 2% per year rate, with 2030 transport-related emissions no higher than 2010 emissions.

sustainable consumption Climate

Focus area 11. Employment and decent work for all

Several proposals put forward goals calling for full employment, with slight variations at the target level. A number of other proposals contain employment-related goals which focus on jobs and decent work amongst specific sectors of society. In this regard, examples which link the issue to gender and youth are given below. It is also worth noting that a number of proposals, in keeping with MDG 1, maintain a clear link between employment and poverty.    

Full Employment

Goal

Full and Decent Employment [41]

Interlinkages

Targets

Full and productive employment.

 

Ensuring gender equality at work.

gender equality

Reduction of vulnerable employment.

equality

Ensuring decent working conditions.

 

Reduction of the working poor.

poverty

Ensuring effective social dialogue.

peace icon

Introduction of a living wage.

equalitypoverty

Ensuring universal social protection.

equalitypovertypeace icon

Ensuring rights at work.

equality peace icon

 

 

Sector Specific Employment

Goal

Employment, decent work and livelihoods [42]

Interlinkages

Youth empowerment and employment [44]

Interlinkages

Targets

Strengthened policies, legislation and enforcement to protect human and labour rights and eliminate exploitation in all its forms, with particular attention to children, women, low-income workers and migrants.

gender equalityequalitypeace icon

Entrepreneurship: We demand accountability from governments in terms of how money set aside for young people is distributed and used. We recommend that this money should be handled by an independent body free of government interference.

Growth icon Industrialisation peace icon equality

Women’s equal access to economic, employment and livelihood opportunities, including through legal and policy provisions, for decent work and equal pay with men.

gender equality

Social protection, including for informal sector workers.

equality peace icon poverty
 

Equal land, property and inheritance rights.

peace icon equality

Governments must provide transparent financial support to young people by enacting youth friendly policies that allow them to access loans and grants to establish businesses and self-employment initiatives.

equality Growth icon Implementation icon

Access to farming supports, productive assets, banking and financial services, technologies and ICTs, and the ability to start and register a business.

food Implementation icon Infrastructure

Creation of employment opportunities for older women, especially important in countries without strong pension or social security systems.

gender equalityHealth icon

Prohibiting employment discrimination against women based on pregnancy or motherhood.

gender equality

Governments should introduce compulsory basic entrepreneurial courses to be offered in schools and provide mentorship towards the same.

Education Employment icon Implementation icon Industrialisation

Adopting and strengthening gender-responsive, family-friendly labour policies and social protection systems that can support women’s equal opportunities for full, productive and decent work, by addressing their disproportionate burden of unpaid care work, inter alia, through maternity and paternity leave policies, flexible work arrangements, the provision of affordable child and elderly care and supports for the care of people living with HIV, disabilities or illness.

Health icon equality gender equality

Investments to reduce time-use burdens on women and girls in managing household tasks and family basic needs (e.g. for water, fuel), that also limit female labour force participation and productivity.

gender equality

Promote innovation, creativity and foster skill and experience development among young people.

Education Growth icon Implementation icon

Creating full, productive and decent employment and livelihood opportunities for youth, with decent wages and attention to young women’s equal opportunities, including expanding access to productive assets and financial services to foster youth entrepreneurship, and skills-building that can also help spur technological innovation and green solutions.

equality gender equality Growth icon Implementation icon

Creation of Employment: The governments should ensure that at least 1/3 of jobs in the public service are opened up to the youth.

equality

Undertaking public education on the importance of gender equality and shared rights and responsibilities of men and boys, including in household management, sexual and reproductive health and rights, and childrearing.

Education gender equality Health icon

We ask the government to put in place cross border lending systems for citizens living in the Diasporas to allow them to set up businesses and invest at home.

Growth icon Implementation icon

Adopting legal, policy and institutional employer-based measures to prevent sexual harassment and any form of gender-based violence in workplaces, including through complaint and redress mechanisms, and establishing supportive and flexible policies and programmes for women subjected to domestic abuse and violence.

gender equality peace icon

 
Focus area 12. Promote equality

Equality is one of the most common thematic areas tagged in e-Inventory proposals, with targets to address the issue cutting across a diverse range of areas. A number of proposals also contain standalone goals on equality, which range from those which call for the reduction of disparities both between and within nations, to those that focus on specific economic and social targets that would reduce inequality at the national level. The large number of interlinkages associated with the targets in the second table below illustrates the extent to which equality seems to relate to virtually all other focus areas.

Reducing Inequalities (Broad)

Goal

Equality [44]

Interlinkages

Economic and social inequality [45]

Interlinkages

Targets

Equality between countries.

Implementation icon

Ensure that growth reaches all sections of the society equitably through a fair system of distribution of resources

Growth icon

Equality within nation.

poverty

Promote the rights and full inclusion of persons with disabilities, the aged, young people, girls and other socially excluded people.

gender equality

Equality within household.

gender equality

Improve women’s access to economic and productive resources and their participation in political decision making.

gender equalityGrowth iconpeace icon

Intergenerational equality.

 

Improve access of children with disability to accessible quality education.

Education

Ensure that young people have access to equal opportunities to enable them maximise their potential.

Employment iconEducation

Economic Justice

Goal

Achieve Economic Justice [46]

Interlinkages

Targets

Enact living wage laws that guarantee that all workers, including women, those in the informal sector, agricultural workers, and migrant workers, earn enough to live with dignity.

gender equality food poverty Employment icon

Ensure that wages grow with productivity; and increase cooperation between countries on exchange rates, trade and fiscal policies, and wages to prevent a race to the bottom.

Employment iconGrowth icon Implementation icon

Implement policies to ensure that all women, men and young people have access to decent work, including by enacting legal protections to provide security in the workplace, social protection for workers and their families, paid parental, breastfeeding, care and sick leave; promote collective bargaining, and organization, and the rights of workers to participate in decision-making that affects their lives.

peace iconEmployment icon gender equality

Ensure trade, investment, financial and intellectual policy rights policies that do not impede countries’ abilities, fiscal or policy space to provide economic opportunities and services to their people or undermine the right to development.

Growth icon Implementation icon

Guarantee universal social protection for all, including income security for the unemployed and those whose livelihoods depend on precarious work, the sick, the disabled, pregnant women, children and the elderly.

Employment icon gender equality poverty

Guarantee the right to universal access to quality public health services, education, food, water, sanitation, energy and justice and implement targeted policies and programs to ensure that women, the poorest and most marginalized, including migrants, refugees and stateless peoples, are able to access and benefit from these services.

peace icon Health icon Energy icon Educationfood

Move towards economies that are owned, driven and planned by people to meet their development needs and guarantee their human rights.

Growth iconpeace icon

End policies that promote the exploitation of migrant workers and the use of remittances to finance national development priorities, and create an enabling environment for migrant workers to enjoy their human rights; strengthen cross-border and multi-sectoral collaboration between countries of origin and destination to promote migrants’ rights, including to social protection; and guarantee access to health, education, and other social services for migrants, regardless of their migration status.

Education Employment icon Health icon Implementation icon peace icon

 
Focus area 13. Sustainable cities and human settlements

Overall, there are fewer proposals in the e-Inventory which contain clear targets and indicators on cities than most other focus areas. Nonetheless one proposal in particular (in the second table below) provides very detailed targets on the issue. The strong link between cities and infrastructure is exhibited by almost all proposals.

Goal

Cities [47]

Interlinkages

Green cities [48]

Interlinkages

Targets

Increase access to public space and services.

 Infrastructure

By 2030, cities develop and implement action plans to address transport, public health and environmental needs in a harmonious and integrated way.

InfrastructureHealth icon

Increase the share of informal sector workers with social protection.

 Employment icon equality

By 2030, from the local to the national levels, Government policies foster compact, mixed-use, pedestrian-oriented, urban development that minimizes energy use and maximizes residential health and that reflects the concept of a society for all ages.

InfrastructureHealth iconEnergy icon

Reduce travel time.

 

All new buildings meet green building standards by 2030.

 

Limit the use of private vehicles.

sustainable consumption

By 2030, city transport needs are or remain predominantly met by mass transport, walking and bicycling.

Infrastructure

Maintain or increase the rate of green areas.

biodiversity icon

Quality of life is also improved for residents by 2030, providing access to green buildings with urban rooftop gardens, clean water, clean energy, waste management systems and sustainable transport.

InfrastructureEnergy icon water icon

Measure the share of regionally grown food in urban citizens' diet.

food

By 2030, urban areas with significant storm water pollution issues reduce impervious surface area by 30 per cent below 2012 levels

water icon

 

Goal

Sustainable cities and human settlements [49]

Interlinkages

Targets

Fundamental Urban Patterns

 

By 2030, all city-regions have adopted policies aimed at enhancing urban density and halving the current rate of conversion of additional green land for urban development.

 

By 2030, secure access to jobs, goods and services within 30 minutes by public transport, walking and/or cycling for nearly all urban households.

InfrastructureEmployment icon

By 2030, develop strategies that consolidate and reinforce existing urban assets in order to preserve and enhance the physical and social assets in cities and to integrate social and cultural infrastructure early in the planning and design of the physical environment.

Infrastructure

By 2030, invest in green infrastructure at the city region scale for social cohesion and community resilience

Infrastructure

By 2030, all city-regions have a tree canopy covering at least 20% of their area meeting the WHOs suggested minimum of 9 square meters open space per resident.


By 2030, collect cross-sectoral baseline data for all cities with population greater than one million, to understand resource consumption and monitor performance.

sustainable consumption

An urban life of dignity for all within planetary boundaries

 

By 2030, provide universal access to affordable shelter served by basic, urban public services for urban slum dwellers and public credit schemes for the urban poor to support shelter and livelihoods.

Growth icon Infrastructure poverty

By 2030, guarantee safe affordable drinking water and basic sanitation to all urban households.

water icon

By 2030, invest in capacity building and skills with a focus on youth and women unemployed or locked into the urban informal economy.

Employment icon Implementation icon

By 2030, at least halve air pollution from passenger and freight transport, to reach peak global transport GHG emissions by 2020 at the latest, with an ultimate vision of achieving 40-60% reductions by 2050 compared to 2005 levels.

InfrastructureClimate

By 2030, at least halve traffic-related deaths with an ultimate vision of near zero fatalities.

InfrastructureHealth icon

By 2030, double the total investment in green technologies and ICT applications to adopt community-based data collection systems in order to guide planning and program development for universal access to services, in particular for the urban poor and informal workers.

equality Infrastructure poverty

By 2030, by 2030 increase by 50% the number of countries with social inclusion policies, following multi-level governance and multi-actor approaches and contributing to the decentralization process.

Implementation icon

Enabling Policies

 

By 2030, all city-regions have developed pre-emptive and resilient urban design strategies to compensate for known and unknown crises.

Climate

By 2030, at least 50% of sub-national and local authorities have developed, broadly disseminated and established institutional mechanisms for disaster response plans aimed at minimizing human suffering and rapidly restoring lifeline services.

Climate

By 2030, redirect subsidies to fossil fuel and resource-based industries by 10% per annum towards sustainable economic sectors relevant to each country in order to foster its internal social and territorial cohesion.

Energy icon sustainable consumption

By 2030, promote and empower monitoring systems and peer-reviews among city-region partners revolving around the achievement of the SDGs at the local level, harnessing the work of networks of cities and sub-national and local authorities. Territorial Dimension of other Sustainable Development Policies.

peace icon

Territorial Dimension of other Sustainable Development Policies

 

By 2030, increase by x% city-regions that have identified, inventoried and completed condition assessments of major ecosystems within their region.

biodiversity icon

By 2030, all city-regions undertake vulnerability assessments of current and future climate and other disaster risks, and 50% of city-regions in both developed and developing countries adopt adaptation strategies informed by rigorous vulnerability assessments, that prioritize vulnerable populations and major ecosystem integrity.

biodiversity icon Climate

By 2030, integrate non-food and food ecosystem planning at the city-region level in disaster risk management and climate action plans.

biodiversity icon food

By 2030, adopt multi-level inclusive and transparent governance mechanisms to link urban-rural planning and implementation, empowering fair and inclusive trade for city-region food systems and expanding employment opportunities in the food chain from farm-to-table, for markets of all kinds.

Employment icon food Implementation icon

Governance & Accountability

 

By 2030, incorporate participatory mechanisms such as spaces of deliberation, citizen audits, participatory budgeting, and community-based data collection in the strategic planning of cities, ensuring the involvement of the most disadvantaged groups, including slum dwellers.

peace icon

Hold all levels of government and governmental agencies accountable against sustainability performance outcomes vis-a-vis the triple bottom line environmental protection, economic development, and social equity and achieve greater coordination between all levels of government and agencies responsible for key public services.

peace icon

Across all levels of government, monitor and end discrimination and inequalities based on gender, ethnicity, religion, disability, national origin, and social or other status in public service delivery, the respect for the rule of law, access to justice, and participation in political and economic life.

equality gender equality peace icon

Guarantee the participation of sub-national and local authorities in the decision-making spaces of the Global Governance Framework for the post-2015 Development Agenda.

Implementation icon peace icon

Focus area 14. Promote sustainable consumption and production

SCP is another focus area which cuts across a number of others, such as energy, sustainable agriculture, food security and nutrition, and industrialisation, etc. This seems a likely reason for there being relatively few e-Inventory proposals which put forward standalone goals on the issue. One of the most comprehensive proposals that does, however, has interestingly framed the issue around the topic of environmental justice.

Goal

Sustainable production and consumption patterns [50]

Interlinkages

Targets

From 2015 onwards, the establishment of a key indicator to calculate every country’s natural resource consumption (i.e. Raw Material Consumption [RCM]) or ecological footprint along with a national water, land, and CO2 footprint.

biodiversity icon Climate water icon

By 2020, the abolition of environmentally harmful subsidies, in accordance with Aichi Target 3 expressed in the CBD Strategic Plan.

biodiversity icon

By 2030, a reform of the tax system where the extraction of certain raw materials and/or the use of specific resources is taxed with an eco-tax that is regularly adjusted to the appropriate, real tax rate, accompanied by a restructuring of the tax system aiming at lower taxes for labour and higher taxes and charges for environmental and resource consumption.

equality Implementation icon

By 2030, a worldwide implementation of permanent resource recycling, in which the design and manufacture of products follows principles that ensure thriftiness, efficiency, longevity, reusability and recycling; a landfill ban on organic, plastic, and recyclable matter; raising awareness of waste as a resource; as well as a global agreement on waste for the comprehensive collection of secondary raw materials, financed by producers and distributors.

Implementation iconEducation

By 2025, a global ban on plastic bags distributed free of charge and non-deposit plastic bottles paired with the establishment of reusable systems through effective taxation or bans at the national level as well as higher resource efficiency.

Implementation icon

By 2020, a 100% social, ecological, and just public procurement that establishes life cycle costs for a fixed period of time as well as resource conservation as key criteria in procedures and provides transparent and easily accessible information on public procurement process.

Growth icon peace icon

 

Goal

Environmental Justice… (see proposal for full goal title) [51]

Interlinkages

Targets:

Reclaim and secure people’s rights to define, own, control and ensure the sustainability of the commons; promote responsible stewardship of natural resources, such as forests, rivers, watershed, and coastal environments; recognize and promote indigenous peoples resources and traditional knowledge in the sustainable management of natural resources.

equalitypeace iconbiodiversity icon food ocean2 water icon

Promote ecological agriculture to guarantee food sovereignty and prevent hunger and its consequences.

 

Reorient production, consumption and distribution systems to meet people’s needs rather than to accumulate profits.

Growth icon

Allocate sufficient resources towards and promote scientific and traditional knowledge for understanding the social and environmental costs and impacts of human activities; popularize this information and enact regulatory measures on this basis.

Implementation iconEducation

Commit to carbon emission reductions and provide new, adequate, predictable, and appropriate climate finance that contributed by countries from public resources on the basis of historical responsibility for climate change, and address the needs of those most affected, including for adaptation and mitigation.

Implementation iconClimate

Promote energy conservation and efficiency; phase out subsidies for the fossil fuel industry while guarding against adverse impacts on low-income and marginalized groups; and promote community-based decentralized renewable energy systems as the main component of a renewable energy transition program.

equalityEnergy icon

Promote technologies for eco-efficiency and work toward elimination of waste; build infrastructure and mechanisms to reduce, recycle and reuse waste; and redesign products to ensure durability and optimum use.

Implementation iconInfrastructure

Ensure resource extraction, such as water use, fishing, logging and mining, is according to the needs of communities and subject to sustainable management, while protecting the rights of fisher folk, small farm holders, indigenous people and women.

peace iconbiodiversity icon ocean2 water icon

Develop and operationalize legal frameworks to protect livelihoods of poor and marginalized people and avoid environmental disasters, particularly as a result of resource extraction.

equalityClimatepeace icon

Prepare a new UN protocol to recognize State responsibilities to provide support to climate-displaced populations.

Implementation iconClimate

Develop international mechanisms to address loss and damage caused by climate change, with special attention to its gender-differential impacts.

Implementation icongender equalityClimate

Promote the creation of decent jobs with the aim of creating environmentally-sustainable industries, promoting environmental awareness, and protecting against environmental destruction.

Employment iconIndustrialisationEducation

To develop and institutionalize mechanisms to monitor and mitigate the social and environmental impacts of development initiatives.

Implementation icon

 
Focus area 15. Climate

Compared to other focus areas, there are slightly less proposals in the e-Inventory that tackle the issue of climate change, perhaps owing to the fact that a separate intergovernmental process (UNFCCC) exists to specifically address this matter. Nevertheless, those which do discuss climate, tend to do so at the target level rather than through a standalone goal. A small number of specific climate and disaster risk reduction goals have been proposed – the most comprehensive of which are detailed below. As expected, factors associated with the interlinked focus area of means of implementation are frequently listed at the target level.

Standalone Climate Change Goal

Goal

A stand-alone climate goal [52]

Interlinkages

Targets

World stays within two degree target.

 

Global GHG emissions reduced by x of 1990 by 2030.

sustainable consumption

All countries have reduced carbon intensity of their economies by x relative to 1990 by 2030.

sustainable consumptionGrowth icon

Number of people vulnerable to climate change impacts reduced by x by 2030.

 

Losses of life and livelihoods from climate events reduced by x by 2030.

Health iconEmployment icon

All countries have financial and technical capacity to respond to climate change by 2030.

Implementation icon

Climate Change Targets

Goal

Environmental sustainability [53]

Interlinkages

Climate change and sustainable development [54]

Interlinkages

Targets

Limit global temperature rise to under 1.5 degrees, consistent with the latest climate science, through drastic emissions cuts and a fair sharing of the global carbon budget that takes into account historical emissions without resorting to offsets. 

Implementation icon

Need to put into place enablers that shield local populations from the harmful effects of climate change, and development policies that respect the rights of the people including indigenous communities and that companies respect the welfare of local communities.

Implementation iconpeace icon

Provide adequate and appropriate finance contributed by countries on the basis of historical responsibility for global warming to make reparations to all affected peoples (in line with the $100 billion per year promised in the 2010 Cancun Agreements).

Implementation icon

Developed countries should commit to obligatory, additional, non-debt creating public finance to cover the full cost of adaptations to climate change.

Implementation icon

Ensure sharing of safe, appropriate, ecologically and socially sound technologies unhindered by intellectual property rights.

Implementation icon

Governments and international agencies should also develop appropriate mechanisms to prevent disasters and develop resilience strategies.

Implementation icon

Shift to and expand renewable energy use.

Energy icon

The responses to water shortages/scarcity need to be emphasized especially in context of the dependence on agriculture in most Asian countries.

foodwater icon

Adopt ecologically and socially sustainable production systems and technologies in manufacturing, agriculture, transportation, and mining.

Industrialisation sustainable consumptionfood Infrastructure

Growing and changing populations and impending food security challenges must be interlinked and addressed in the new framework.

foodHealth icon

Arrest deforestation, overfishing, biodiversity loss, environmental degradation, pollution and protect livelihoods of forest-dwellers and fishers. 

biodiversity iconocean2Employment icon

The framework should restructure production and consumption patterns in both advanced and developing countries in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

sustainable consumption

Disaster Risk Reduction

Goal

By 2030 we will build disaster-resilient societies [55]

Interlinkages

Reinforcing community resilience to disasters and ability to adapt to climate change [56]

Interlinkages

Targets

Nations to halve disaster mortality rates.

Health icon

Existence of a well-functioning early warning system.

Implementation icon

Nations to halve disaster related economic loss.

Growth icon

Local capacity for prevention and management of disasters.

Implementation icon

All nations to develop a national disaster risk reduction and resilience plan by 2020.

Implementation icon

Existence of infrastructure for the reduction and mitigation of disaster risks.

Infrastructure

Focus area 16. Conservation and sustainable use of marine resources, oceans and seas

Some of the most concrete commitments made by Member States at Rio+20 were on the sustainable use of oceans. Many of the specific issues that these commitments addressed, such as marine litter, fisheries and biodiversity, and governance of the high seas, have been picked up by proposals in the e-Inventory. Several proposals use ocean health as an umbrella term to frame the multiple factors considered necessary to facilitate the sustainable use of seas and safeguard their ecosystems. With many targets referring to moratoriums and new legal mechanisms, governance and the rule of law (19) can be considered an important interlinked focus area. 

Goal

Ensure the health, protection, and preservation of oceans, seas, and marine ecosystems [57]

Interlinkages

Healthy Oceans [58]

Interlinkages

Targets

Establish a representative network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) covering 20-30% of the ocean’s area.

peace icon

By 2025, a significant reduction of the processes, particularly due to climate change, causing marine acidification; and by 2030, an absolute stop of its harmful impacts, with the guideline that the pH of surface waters in any larger ocean region (nor in the global mean) should not drop more than 0.2 units below the pre-industrial average value.

IndustrialisationClimate

Enact a moratorium on all fish stocks that are overfished, no longer resilient or in decline.

peace icon biodiversity icon

By 2030, a moratorium on ore mining in the deep sea with only select few trials supervised by the International Seabed Authority allowed and an appropriate framework implemented until then.

peace iconsustainable consumption

Establish and implement an agreement concerning the protection of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction.

peace iconbiodiversity icon

By 2020, a reduction of marine waste pollution by 50%; a reduction of nutrient contamination by 50% compared to levels from 1985; and a ban on heavy fuel oil in shipping.

peace iconIndustrialisationInfrastructure

By 2020, a ban on the extraction of energy resources from the deep sea and the arctic; by 2025, a complete stop of deep sea and arctic oil exploration; and an immediate ban on methane extraction and on CO2 sequestration in the deep sea.

peace iconEnergy icon

 

Goal

Healthy seas and oceans (blue economy)[59]

Interlinkages

A sustainable development goal for the ocean and coasts [60]

Interlinkages

Targets

By 2020, consistent with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, Governments establish at least 10 per cent coastal and marine areas. By 2030, oceanic dead zones are recovered by reducing nitrogen runoff from land by 50 per cent or more. By 2020, marine protected areas are established in at least 25 per cent of each exclusive economic zone and the high seas in representative networks capable of restoring minimum viable populations of all at-risk stocks, protecting marine biological diversity, and maximizing benefits to commercial and subsistence fishers in surrounding waters.

sustainable consumption biodiversity icon peace icon Employment icon

Secure blue wealth by ensuring a healthy and productive marine environment with all basic provisioning, support, regulation, and cultural services.

Implementation iconGrowth icon

Provide equitable access to ocean resources, and ensure that neither pollution nor the harvesting and extraction of animate and inanimate resources impair the basic functions of the ecosystem.

biodiversity icon sustainable consumptionequality

Reduce plastic pollution in the oceans, including by banning or taxing single-use plastics, supporting the use of recycled plastics in new products and holding manufacturers responsible for plastics through their entire life cycle.

sustainable consumption

Facilitate the development of sustainable and resilient coastal communities.

Implementation icon Climate

Establish an international monitoring network for ocean acidification to enable the identification of vulnerable regions and industries and to provide an early warning system for industries already experiencing harm.

Implementation iconGrowth icon

Harmonize national and regional maritime policies, and encourage cooperation in coastal and global marine spatial planning.

Implementation iconInfrastructure

Designate the high seas of the Central Arctic Ocean as a zone for international scientific cooperation, where extractive and polluting activities are suspended until we have a better understanding of the area and the potential effects of such activities.

peace iconImplementation icon Industrialisation

Schedule, as a matter of urgency, an intergovernmental conference to address the multiplying threats to ocean areas beyond the jurisdiction of individual nations.

Implementation iconpeace icon

Focus area 17. Ecosystems and biodiversity

Proposals in the e-Inventory which address this focus area tend to put forward standalone goals which either broadly address the multiple interrelated issues associated with ecosystems and biodiversity, or focus on a specific interrelated issue such as forests. A number of proposals reference the UN Convention on Biological Diversity’s 2011 – 2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, which include the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. This would suggest that this plan and affiliated targets would need to be the starting point for any new global goal on this focus area.

Broad Ecosystems and Biodiversity Goals

Goal

Preserve biodiversity including keeping land and oceans healthy [61]

Interlinkages

Encourage the self-regulation processes of ecosystems [62]

Interlinkages

Targets

By 2015, Governments should integrate education for sustainable development more actively.

Education

Curtailment of clear cutting of tropical and boreal forests as well as draining of wetlands.

 

By 2015, Governments should intensify their actions to fulfil their commitments in the Biodiversity Strategic Plan.

Implementation icon

Preservation, increased attention, and monitoring of aquatic ecosystems.

ocean2 water icon

Seas: By 2020, reduce by two-thirds, plastic pollution in the seas.

ocean2Industrialisation

Development of domestic regulations as well as international agreements and treaties to protect glacier regions (Arctic, Antarctic, Himalayan and others) from economic exploitation.

Implementation icon peace icon

Forests : By 2020, all remaining virgin forests are protected from conversion and degradation, consistent with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity

 

By 2020, policies to stop the clearing of forests should be put in place at the global and national levels.

Implementation icon

Protection of sensitive areas requiring their safeguarding by the public and through internationally binding law.

Implementation icon peace icon

The restoration of over 150 million hectares of cleared or degraded forest landscapes is achieved by 2020, with the creation of millions of new jobs and enhanced livelihoods, improved security and adaptation to climate change.

Employment icon Climate

Advancement of organic farming to further develop sustainable agriculture.

food

Extraction: By 2020, States will have implemented the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples with special attention to free, prior, and informed consent.

peace icon

Worldwide banishment of discharge of untreated sewage and other waste materials into natural ecosystems.

IndustrialisationInfrastructure

Cities: By 2030, city transport needs are or remain predominantly met by mass transport, walking and bicycling.

InfrastructureCity

Forests

Goal

Halting deforestation and forest degradation [63]

Interlinkages

Supporting the sustainable management of natural resources and ecosystems by sharing good practices [64]

Interlinkages

Targets

At least halve the loss of forests and where feasible brought close to zero.

 

Existence of local mechanisms for the management of natural resources.

Implementation icon

Significantly reduce degradation and fragmentation and manage forests sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity.

 

Growth in the rate of the adoption of practices for the sustainable management of natural resources.

Implementation icon

Restore 15 percent of currently degraded ecosystems, which includes forests.

 

Fair access to natural resources.

equality

Legislation favourable to the wise use of natural resources.

Implementation icon

Culture

Goal

Culture as one of the pillars of sustainable development [65]

Interlinkages

Targets

Ensure the protection of the natural resources, environment and habitat.

 

Achieve reduction of poverty especially among marginalized sectors such as the Indigenous Peoples and youth.

equalitypoverty

Reduce environmental hazards to indigenous territories and the whole of society.

equality

Natural resources are used and distributed appropriately.

equality

Indigenous Peoples and youth have equal access to basic but quality social services such as education, health, housing and employment.

foodIndustrialisation Education Health iconCity

Destructive projects such as extractive (large scale mining) and energy (mega dam construction, bio fuels) projects are haulted.

IndustrialisationEnergy icon

Focus area 18. Means of implementation/Global partnership for sustainable development

As one of the most wide-ranging focus areas, means of implementation (MoI) and global partnership are issues addressed by a large proportion of proposals within the e-Inventory. These proposals can in general be split into three broad groups according to the sub-categories which they focus upon: global partnership; financial systems and resources for sustainable development; and capacity building. Given the interlinked nature of these sub-categories, however, there is a fair amount of overlap between different proposals at the target level.

Global Partnership

Goal

Increase partnership for sustainable development [66]

Interlinkages

 

 

 

Strengthen international environmental governance, eco-partnerships for technology development, innovation, and sustainability [67]

Interlinkages

Targets

By 2020, Governments will implement measures that assure an inclusive partnership relationship with civil society and the private sector to bring about the commitments made at Rio +20.

peace icon

National and local Governments will work in partnership with civil society, NGOs, labour unions and businesses to make decisions.

peace icon

In cooperation with the private sector, make available benefits of new technologies, especially ICTs.

sustainable consumption Growth icon Industrialisation

Where the present economy brings about inequalities, destruction and greed, it should be replaced by an economy of care for human rights and the planet.

peace icon biodiversity icon equality

By 2022, Governments will adopt and implement laws which guarantee effective access to administrative and judicial procedures linked to sustainable development especially regarding reparation and compensation for damages.

peace icon

Increase levels of donor aid to the United Nations target of 0.7% of gross national income.

By 2025 Governments will develop and implement multilateral systems of trade and finance which are open, rule-based, predictable and non-discriminatory.

Growth iconequality

These systems will pay particular attention to the least developed countries, land-locked countries and small island developing states.

equality

Increase the adoption of clean technologies in developing countries.

Industrialisation sustainable consumption

By 2025, Governments will deal on a world-wide level with the problem of debt in developing countries using national and international measures to ensure long-term debt sustainability.

Growth icon

Financial Systems and Resources for Sustainable Development

Goal

Foster Fair and Resilient Financial Systems [68]

Interlinkages

Tax Justice at the heart of post-2015 [69]

Interlinkages

Targets

Macroeconomic imbalances.

Growth icon

Tax Justice Network (TJN) working to link tax revenue as an important link for economic development in developing countries has suggested that the new global framework should challenge the malpractices that deny developing countries their duly owed tax revenue.

 Growth icon

Global currency mechanism to prevent volatile fluctuations and competitive

Growth icon

Illicit financial flows.

Growth icon peace icon

Transparency of financial flows.

Growth icon peace iconIndustrialisationsustainable consumption

Debt sustainability.

Growth icon

They call for global governance including an internationally agreed framework on corporate reporting and exchange of tax information, transparency at global and national levels.

peace iconsustainable consumption

Environmentally and socially harmful subsidies.

Energy iconfoodbiodiversity icon

Harmful tax competition.

Growth icon

Total economic valuation of Foreign Direct Investment and TNC activities.

Growth icon

They call for increased accountability through the tax system rather than aid and that tax justice should be at the heart of the new post-2015.

peace icon

Participatory and gender budgets.

peace icongender equality

 

Capacity Building

Goal

Introduce people living in poverty as a new partner in building knowledge on development [70]

Interlinkages

Targets

Create cooperation and new forms of shared knowledge between people living in poverty and mainstream society.

povertyequality

Join forces with academics, professionals and policy-makers to increase their involvement on a regular basis in processes of pooling knowledge with people living in poverty.

povertyEducation

Create reporting mechanisms in cooperation with impoverished communities.

poverty

Create cooperation and new forms of shared knowledge between developed and developing countries.

equality

Improve and expand qualitative knowledge and measures on development, discrimination, empowerment and participation with people in poverty.

equalityEducationpeace icon

 

Focus area 19. Peaceful and non-violent societies, rule of law and capable institutions

There is a diverse selection of proposals in the e-Inventory which address this focus area, owing in part to the fact that it cuts across a broad range of issues. Only a small number of proposals attempt to address its multiple elements under a single goal, with most proposals instead focusing on a particular sub-theme (albeit with some overlap at the target level). Broadly speaking, these are: human rights, rule of law and justice; peace and non-violence; and participation and access to information. Some proposals which call for the creation of an enabling environment for public participation and civic engagement reference targets from the WSIS ICT Indicators, which could be useful starting point when exploring how to address this specific governance issue in the goals framework.

Human Rights, Rule of Law and Justice

Goal

Access to justice [71]

Interlinkages

Good Governance and human rights [72]

Interlinkages

Targets

Ensure accessible, well- resourced, impartial, independent and accountable justice systems.

 equality

Build functional systems and structures that guarantee stability and transparency in all countries.

 

Ensuring access to a plurality of justice services looking at both supply and demand side.

 equality

Foster a fair legal environment that ensures the respect and promotion of human rights of all people. Africa is a highly volatile region –threats, intimidation and arrests are happening in many countries. People should be given the freedom to participate freely in the democratic processes, and make independent judgments and decisions.

equality

Accessible (geographical; cost; socio-cultural/multi- cultural; etc.), independent justice systems that respect due process rights/human rights (also efficiency/ expeditiousness, equality, transparency).

 equality

Improve the capacity, professionalism, and accountability, of law enforcement and justice institutions.

 Implementation icon

Ensure that political leaders at all levels are accountable to their citizens, and to each other, if they do not respect the commitments they have assumed under the post-2015 framework.

Implementation icon

Ensure access to security and justice institutions that are professional, accountable and show integrity.

 equality

Strengthen and build strong institutions and law enforcement agencies to tackle the menace of corruption and impunity.

Implementation icon

Ensure justice systems are accessible to women.

 gender equality

Be inclusive (especially of marginalised groups including women, youth, persons with disabilities, and others) to ensure better living conditions for populations.

equality gender equality

Ensure that justice systems are accessible to ethnic groups.

 equality

Ensure that rulings take on gender and ethnic perspectives

 gender equalityequality

Strengthen the democratic participation of people in integrating the fight against violence and the fight against gender discrimination.

gender equality

Goal

Build sustainable peace based on transparency [73]

Interlinkages

Targets

Eliminate sources of conflicts (ethnic, cross-border, community-based, religious.....) by 2035

 equality

Eliminate imprisonment for beliefs or convictions by 2035

 

Fully secure a civil state by 2035

Reduce all forms of corruption by at least 90 per cent by 2035

 Implementation icon

Ensure free participation of all opposition forces by 2035

 equality


 
Peace and Non-Violence
 

Goal

Building Peace through Disarmament [74]

Interlinkages

Ensure stable and peaceful societies [75]

Interlinkages

Peace and security [76]

Interlinkages

Targets

Abolition of nuclear weapons.

 

Reduce violent deaths per 100,000.

 Health icon

Broad-based processes for conflict resolution and reconciliation build on women’s grassroots peacebuilding efforts and address gender-related inequalities and insecurities.

gender equality

Reduction of production and trade of arms (including small weapons).

 Industrialisation

Reduce the number of people and groups affected by armed conflict and violence.

 

Improved behaviour, effectiveness and accountability of formal and informal security actors, particularly in relation to the protection of women.

gender equality 

Reduction of military expenditures.

 

Enhance the capacity, professionalism and accountability of security, police and justice institutions.

 

Full and meaningful participation of communities, including women leaders and networks, in shaping security priorities and provision.

gender equalityequality

Particular attention to the gender-specific security needs and vulnerabilities of women and girls.

gender equality

The political settlement is broadened beyond an elite settlement to become a societal compact, which includes women and addresses gender issues

gender equalityequality

  Participation and Access to Information

Goal

Open, inclusive, accountable and effective governance [77]

Interlinkages

A standalone goal on open information [78]

Interlinkages

Targets

Enable all people and public bodies to obtain detailed and reliable information on sustainable development in a timely and accessible manner: in particular, information about what resources are available, how they are raised and spent and what results they contribute to.

equality Implementation icon

Right to information enshrined in legislation [inc. overruling of previous regressive legislation.

 

Detailed and timely government revenue, budget, and spending information is made publicly available to a common open standard.

Implementation icon

Curb corruption and illicit financial flows, which drain away huge sums in much-needed funds.

Implementation icon

Open contracting and company registry data to provide detailed information on entitlements and government services made available online.

 

Enhance the effectiveness of public institutions in curbing poverty and promoting sustainable development and maximise their accountability for the use of public resources.

povertyImplementation icon

Private sector disclosure of payments made to the government, such as tax and royalty payments.

Implementation icon

Ensure public backing for efforts to curb poverty and inequality by enabling participation of all people in the design, delivery and monitoring of policy, without exclusion or discrimination, and by ensuring rights of free speech, assembly and access to information.

Implementation iconequalitypoverty

Investment in statistical capacity and public reporting.

Implementation icon
 

Universal access to mobile phone and broadband coverage.

Infrastructure

Enhance the accountability and positive impacts of business by ensuring full disclosure of relationships between corporations and states and requiring corporations to report to a consistent standard on their impacts on the environment, society and human rights.

Implementation icon

 

 

More information

For further information, to search existing proposals, or to submit your vision for new global goals visit: www.sdgseinventory.org or contact Jack Cornforth – This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .


 


  1. The sub-themes used in this document have been selected by Stakeholder Forum based on the contents of the SDGs e-Inventory and are not based on the sub-themes identified by the OWG in their focus document.
  2. Campaign for Peoples Goals for Sustainable Development (CPGSD)
  3. World Bank
  4. The Participate Initiative
  5. International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC)
  6. Campaign for Peoples Goals for Sustainable Development (CPGSD)
  7. Farming First
  8. 64th Annual Conference of the Department of Public Information for Non-Governmental Organisations
  9. International Fertilizer Industry Association
  10. Beyond 2015, GCAP and IFP
  11. NCD alliance
  12. Grassroots Development Organisation (GDO) – Field Hearings Partner
  13. African Union/African Development Bank/ECOSOC (West Africa Sub-Region)
  14. Save the Children
  15. African Union/African Development Bank/ECOSOC (Southern Africa Sub-Region)
  16. UNFPA and HelpAge International
  17. The Girl Effect
  18. Save the Children
  19. lnstitut de la Francophonie pour le developpement durable (IFDD)
  20. African Union/African Development Bank/ECOSOC (West Africa Sub-Region)
  21. African Youth Conference on Post-2015 Development Agenda
  22. Directorate-General of Global Affairs, Development and Partnerships, French Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  23. SSA Social Justice Office
  24. Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
  25. German NGO Forum on Environment and Development
  26. Pedi C. Obani/ University of Benin; UNESCO-IHE; UvA/ Initiative for Equality
  27. WHO / UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme and Partners
  28. Save the Children
  29. German NGO Forum on Environment and Development
  30. 64th Annual Conference of the Department of Public Information for Non-Governmental Organisations
  31. African Union/African Development Bank/ECOSOC (Central Africa Sub-Region)
  32. Cordaid
  33. International Expert Group on Earth System Preservation (IESP)
  34. Marian Deblonde
  35. David Griggs, Mark Stafford-Smith, Owen Gaffney, Johan Rockström, Marcus C. Öhman and Priya Shyamsundar
  36. African Union/African Development Bank/ECOSOC (Northern Africa Sub-Region)
  37. African Union/African Development Bank/ECOSOC (West Africa Sub-Region)
  38. Centre for International Governance Indicators (CIGI) and the Korea Development Institute (KDI)
  39. The Global bFuel Economy Initiative
  40. Partnership for Sustainable Low Carbon Transport (SloCaT)
  41. International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC)
  42. High-Level Task Force for ICPD
  43. African Youth Conference on Post-2015 Development
  44. Unnayan Onneshan
  45. Beyond 2015, GCAP and IFP
  46. Asia Pacific Forum on Women Law and Development (APWLD)
  47. Manuel Rivera- Adriana Lagos / IASS-JBB
  48. 64th Annual Conference of the Department of Public Information for Non-Governmental Organisations
  49. Communitas Coalition for Sustainable Cities and Regions
  50. German NGO Forum on Environment and Development
  51. Asia Pacific Forum on Women- Law and Development (APWLD)
  52. CAFOD and WWF
  53. Campaign for Peoples Goals for Sustainable Development (CPGSD)
  54. Beyond 2015, GCAP and IFP
  55. Save the Children
  56. M Mathieu Ouedraogo
  57. UNCSD Major Group for Youth and Children and UNCSD Youth Caucus
  58. German NGO Forum on Environment and Development
  59. 64th Annual Conference of the Department of Public Information for Non-Governmental Organisations
  60. M. Visbeck et al.
  61. SSA Social Justice Office
  62. International Expert Group on Earth System Preservation (IESP)
  63. Forest Stewardship Council
  64. M Mathieu Ouedraogo
  65. AP Indigenous Youth Network
  66. SSA Social Justice Office
  67. UNCSD Major Group for Youth and Children
  68. Civil Society Reflection Group on Global Development Perspectives
  69. Tax Justice Africa
  70. International Movement ATD Fourth World
  71. Global Dialogue on Rule of Law and the Post-2015 Development Agenda
  72. Beyond 2015, GCAP and IFP
  73. African Union/African Development Bank/ECOSOC (Northern Africa Sub-Region)
  74. Civil Society Reflection Group on Global Development Perspectives
  75. Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development
  76. Cordaid
  77. Diarmid O'Sullivan, on behalf of an informal group of 50 civil society organisations
  78. Development Initiatives

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